Application of acidifier in piglet feed

Application of acidifier in piglet feed

Early weaning of piglets often leads to early weaning syndrome in piglets with digestive disorders and growth retardation. Adding acidifiers to weaned pigs can control bacterial diarrhea and nutritional diarrhea in weaned piglets. , and does not produce drug resistance and drug residues, has become the main measure to overcome early weaning syndrome in piglets. The digestive environment of the gastrointestinal tract of piglets refers to the internal biological and abiotic environment of the digestive feed of the gastrointestinal tract, including biological environment factors such as gastrointestinal microflora and parasites, and non-biological environments such as temperature, pH and enzyme activity. sK6 China Feed Industry Information Network - based on feed, serving animal husbandry

1 piglet digestion characteristics sK6 China feed industry information network - based on feed, service animal husbandry

1.1 The development of digestive organs is low. sK6 China Feed Industry Information Network - based on feed, serving animal husbandry

Piglets have a limited volume of digestive organs and food is fast through the digestive tract. The time for food to completely empty after entering the stomach is 1.5 hours at 15 days, 3-5 hours at 30 days, and 16-19 hours at 60 days. sK6 China Feed Industry Information Network - based on feed, serving animal husbandry

1.2 piglet gastric juice secretion reflex is not completely healthy sK6 China feed industry information network - based on feed, service animal husbandry

Because the relationship between the stomach and the nervous system has not been fully established, the secretion of gastric juice is very small, and the acidity is insufficient. As the age increases and the food stimulates the stomach wall, the secretion of hydrochloric acid increases continuously until the concentration of hydrochloric acid of 2.5-3 months is close to adulthood. Pig level. The acidic environment in piglets is mainly maintained by the lactic acid produced by lactose fermentation in breast milk, followed by volatile fatty acids, while hydrochloric acid secretion is rare, until 3-4 weeks after weaning, hydrochloric acid accounts for 50% of the total acidity in the stomach, after 60 days of age. Close to normal levels. The pH of the suckling piglets in the stomach was 4.0, and the pH rose to 5.5-6.0 within 5 days after weaning, and then gradually decreased, and gradually reached the normal level (pH=3) after 60 days of age. The pH of the jejunum contents was as high as 8.03 within 9 days after weaning, and then decreased to a normal level (pH 5.5-6.0). sK6 China Feed Industry Information Network - based on feed, serving animal husbandry

1.3 Digestive enzymes and activity sK6 China feed industry information network - based on feed, service animal husbandry

There is only chymosin in the stomach of the born piglets, and saliva and pepsin are few, about 1/3 and 1/4 of the adult. At the same time, the fundus glands are not developed and cannot produce hydrochloric acid. Due to the lack of free hydrochloric acid, pepsinogen can not be activated, protein digestion is almost zero, then only the development of intestinal gland and pancreas is relatively complete, trypsin, intestinal amylase and lactase activity is high, food is mainly digested in the small intestine Absorbed, so birth piglets cannot digest botanical nutrition. The digestive enzyme activity of the gastrointestinal tract of piglets increased with the increase of the age. The activity of pepsin, trypsin (trypsin, pancreatic fat, pancreatic amylase) increased exponentially every week at 0-4 weeks old. sK6 China Feed Industry Information Network - based on feed, serving animal husbandry

1.4 Gastrointestinal microflora sK6 China Feed Industry Information Network - based on feed, serving animal husbandry

Piglets were colonized in the jejunum, ileum, cecum and rectum within 24 hours after birth. Bifidobacteria, Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus, Peptococcus, Bacteroides, Enterococcus, Clostridium, Prostatus and Yeast were the first five species. Advantage. In the lactation period, the microbes present in the stomach are mainly Lactobacillus. The intestinal flora of piglets is an indispensable factor for its growth, development, nutrition, immunity and anti-infection, and it has an inhibitory effect on growth. The effect of feed acidifier on the regulation of gastrointestinal microflora is mainly achieved by lowering the pH of the gastrointestinal tract. The optimal growth pH of Escherichia coli and Enterococcus in the digestive tract is 6-7 and 7-8, respectively, at pH 4 It is basically inactivated, and the lactic acid bacteria grow well at a pH of 3.5. The large-scale reproduction of lactic acid bacteria further reduces the pH of the gastrointestinal tract, thereby further inhibiting the growth of harmful bacteria and promoting the digestion of the diet. The feed acidifier itself also has a strong bactericidal effect. Fumarate 0.2%-0.4% kills Staphylococcus and Streptococcus, and fumarate 0.4% kills E. coli. The addition of fumarate 2% to the wet feed stored at a high temperature of 30 ° C has the effect of preventing the growth of harmful microorganisms, and the feed does not deteriorate within 4 days. Intestinal microflora of piglets Under normal circumstances, Lactobacillus has certain advantages, and Lactobacillus can decompose sugar to produce acid, inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria and spoilage bacteria, and contribute to intestinal health. It can enhance the growth and reproduction ability of Lactobacillus and strengthen its dominant position by increasing gastrointestinal acidity, reducing bacterial intake and maintaining feed stability. sK6 China Feed Industry Information Network - based on feed, serving animal husbandry

2 The mechanism of feed acidifier sK6 China feed industry information network - based on feed, service animal husbandry

2.1 reduce the pH of the diet and stomach sK6 China Feed Industry Information Network - based on feed, service animal husbandry

The feed acidifier reduces the pH of the stomach by lowering the pH of the diet and promotes the conversion of pepsinogen to pepsin. According to the study, pepsinogen activated most rapidly at a gastric pH of 2; when the gastric pH was 4, the activation was significantly slowed down. Lowering the pH in the stomach also increases the activity of other digestive enzymes in the stomach. Feedback reduces the rate of gastric emptying, prolongs the digestion time of the diet in the stomach, reduces the burden on the small intestine, and reduces the incidence of diarrhea. sK6 China Feed Industry Information Network - based on feed, serving animal husbandry

2.2 regulate gastric emptying speed sK6 China feed industry information network - based on feed, service animal husbandry

The factors affecting the rate of gastric emptying are the volume and pH of the stomach contents. After the acid chyme enters the small intestine, it can secrete intestinal gastrin to inhibit gastric peristalsis and slow down the gastric emptying rate. Therefore, gastric pH plays a major role in the emptying speed. Low pH ensures that the protein has more digestion time in the stomach. sK6 China Feed Industry Information Network - based on feed, serving animal husbandry

2.3 directly as the energy component of the diet sK6 China Feed Industry Information Network - based on feed, service animal husbandry

Feed acidifiers are mostly intermediates in the tricarboxylic acid cycle and can act as dietary energy components. The addition of an acidulant to the diet reduces tissue loss in piglets due to gluconeogenesis and lipid hydrolysis. sK6 China Feed Industry Information Network - based on feed, serving animal husbandry

2.4 Improve mineral absorption sK6 China feed industry information network - based on feed, service animal husbandry

While the acidifying agent lowers the pH of the stomach contents, most of them can form a chelate compound which is easily absorbed and utilized with the mineral elements necessary for the piglets. Citric acid and fumaric acid can form a highly bioavailable chelate with mineral elements such as calcium, copper, zinc, iron, phosphorus and magnesium, thereby promoting the absorption and retention of these minerals. sK6 China Feed Industry Information Network - based on feed, serving animal husbandry

3 factors affecting the application effect of acidifiers sK6 China Feed Industry Information Network - based on feed, service animal husbandry

3.1 diet composition sK6 China feed industry information network - based on feed, service animal husbandry

The acid binding capacity of the diet is related to the growth performance of the weaned piglets. The acidity of the milk product is higher because the effect of adding the acidifier to the dairy-containing diet is not obvious, or it may be because the lactose in the dairy-containing diet can be Fermentation into lactic acid reduces the need for acid in piglets. The effect of the acidifier is affected by the type of protein in the diet. The effect of adding the acidifier to the diet containing the dairy product is not obvious, but the application of the acidifier in the corn-soybean meal diet is better. This difference in application effectiveness may be related to dietary acid binding. The acidity required for digestion of different types of proteins in the gastrointestinal tract is different. The suitable pH for the milk product is 4, and the pH of the soy protein and fish meal is 2.5. Protein is a strong inhibitor of pH changes in the stomach, and excess protein can degrade the effect of the acidulant. The components of the premix in the basal diet are added or offset by the action of the acidifier, such as the amount of antibiotics, enzyme preparations, trace elements, and their presence, which have a significant effect on the effect of the acidifier. sK6 China Feed Industry Information Network - based on feed, serving animal husbandry

3.2 weaning age and piglet weight sK6 China Feed Industry Information Network - based on feed, service animal husbandry

The weaning age of piglets is directly related to the development of gastrointestinal function. The early weaned piglets have weak gastric acid secretion and the effect of using acidifier is better. The addition of acidifier generally has the most obvious effect in stage I after weaning, and phase II is not as good as stage I. After phase II, the effect is generally not significant. The addition of acidifying agent is generally effective in piglets <30kg, while the effect of adding >30kg is not obvious. sK6 China Feed Industry Information Network - based on feed, serving animal husbandry

3.3 Types and Additions of Acidifiers sK6 China Feed Industry Information Network - Based on Feed, Serving Livestock

The effect of some acidifiers is more certain, such as fumaric acid, citric acid, formic acid, calcium formate, and the application effect of other acidifiers is not very certain, such as phosphoric acid, malic acid. The physical and chemical properties of the acidifying agent, such as relative molecular mass, solubility, dissociation constant, and energy value, may affect the utilization effect. sK6 China Feed Industry Information Network - based on feed, serving animal husbandry

Sulphates

Ammonium Hydrogen Sulfate,Formula Potassium Sulfate,Potassium Sulfate Fertilizer

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