Diamond turning technology and its application

Diamond turning technology and its application

1. The technical key of diamond lathe

Compared with mirror milling machines, diamond lathes have more complex mechanical structures and stricter technical requirements. In addition to high motion stability, high positioning accuracy and repeatability must be achieved. When the mirror surface is milled, the spindle requires only high axial motion accuracy and low radial motion accuracy. Diamond lathes must have high axial and radial motion accuracy to reduce the impact on the shape accuracy and surface roughness of the workpiece.

Most of the spindles of diamond lathes currently available on the market use hydrostatic bearings. The axial and radial motion errors are below 50 nm, and the motion errors of individual spindles are less than 25 nm. Most of the slides of diamond lathes used gas static pressure support before the 1990s, and Hembrug of the Netherlands used hydrostatic bearings. Since the 1990s, the main production and 250 of Pneumo (now merged with Precitech) in the United States has also adopted a hydrostatic bearing slide with high rigidity, high damping and high stability.

2. The layout of the diamond lathe

The layout of the diamond lathe initially follows the structure of a conventional lathe. The main shaft is fixed to the bed and mounted laterally along the table (X-axis) on the longitudinal slide (Z-axis). Because the guide rails of the vertical and horizontal slides are perpendicular to each other, they are also called a cross slide layout. The advantage is that the technology is mature and compact, and the Hembrug company's super-mikroturn has been using this structure. The disadvantage of the cross slide layout is that the two slides interact with each other when moving, and this disadvantage is particularly acute when the dynamic accuracy is required.  

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